Oscillatory flames can be observed when several candles burn next to each other. Two such oscillators can couple with each other, resulting in in-phase or anti-phase synchronisation (depending on the distance between the sets of candles). Explain and investigate this phenomenon.
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In-phase Synchronization of Oscillating Candle Flame
When two sets of three candles were placed at a distance of 20 mm, the oscillatory flames exhibit in-phase synchronization.
Ref) H. Kitahata et al., J. Phys. Chem. A, 113 (2009) 8164.
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Arrays of coupled chemical oscillators.
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